Azithromycin 250mg tablets
Azithromycin 250mg is currently one of the most popular antibacterial drugs available on the market. This medication may be used to treat various types of bacterial infections, which are primarily associated with the respiratory system. Azithromycin can be taken by both adults and children.
Azithromycin is an organic substance belonging to the group of macrolides, which is a subclass of azalides. This antibiotic works by blocking the production of important specific proteins produced by bacteria, which results in cessation of bacterial growth and reproduction. Accordingly, Azithromycin demonstrates bacteriostatic as opposed to bactericidal action. Nevertheless, this does not mean that Azithromycin demonstrates a weaker therapeutic effect than bactericidal-type antibiotics. Preventing growth of bacteria in most cases leads to the death of bacterial colonies. Moreover, when delivered in large dosages, Azithromycin acts as a bactericidal.
The pharmacological action of Azithromycin is similar to erythromycin to which it is a derivative. However, in a more favorable manner, Azithromycin differs in many ways from erythromycin. For example, the effects of Azithromycin are not lessened by the action of gastric juice. Azithromycin demonstrates resistance to acids at roughly 300x the strength in comparison to erythromycin. The side effects associated with the gastrointestinal tract when taking Azithromycin are less compared with erythromycin. Overall, macrolides have a much milder and less sparing effect on the body. They are also less toxic in comparison with the widespread, but already obsolete penicillin-based drugs. It is not by chance that Azithromycin can be used to treat infants.
Azithromycin is available as:
- capsules or tablets in dosages of 125, 250, 500mg, or 1000 mg
- powder from which a liquid suspension can be prepared to be taken at a dose of 500 mg
Azithromycin meant for oral administration (i.e., capsules, tablets, dispersible tablets, or powder for the preparation of a suspension) is prescribed for:
- infections of the upper respiratory tract (e.g., bacterial inflammation of the pharynx (pharyngitis) and tonsils (tonsillitis or angina))
- infections of the lower respiratory tract (e.g., bronchitis, pneumonia, or exacerbation of chronic bronchitis)
- infections of the ENT organs
Azithromycin is often prescribed for the treatment of:
- sinusitis (i.e., inflammation of the maxillary sinuses)
- urinary tract infections (e.g., urethritis, cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix, which includes those caused by chlamydia), urea plasmas and mycoplasmas, other inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs (adnexitis, endometritis, prostatitis, etc.))
- infections of the skin and soft tissues (e.g., erysipelas, impetigo, or infected dermatoses)
- infectious diseases of the stomach
Azithromycin when delivered via infusion is prescribed for severe diseases such as community-acquired pneumonia.
The parenteral suspension form of Azithromycin is used in severe infections of the pelvic organs (e.g., endometritis or prostatitis).
Another useful property of Azithromycin is its long withdrawal time from the body. Half of Azithromycin is excreted from the body in approximately 50 hours. This length of time is much higher than that for other antibiotics. This means that the effect of Azithromycin persists in the body for a long time. Azithromycin can exert its effects 5-7 days after the end of the course of therapy, which is important during treatment of severe and protracted infections demonstrating a high probability of relapse. This property of Azithromycin can help with reducing the frequency of administration and the course of treatment duration. The slow release rate of Azithromycin within the body is reflected in a lesser load on the liver, which is important for patients with various disorders of the body.
Nevertheless, despite the fact that Azithromycin tends to stay in the body for a long time after ingestion, it is quickly absorbed into the blood stream. The maximum concentration of Azithromycin is observed 2.5 hours after ingestion.
Another important feature of Azithromycin is its ability to accumulate primarily in tissues as opposed to in blood plasma. Azithromycin is also known to primarily accumulate at the site of infection. According scientific research, the concentration of Azithromycin at the site of infection is approximately 30% higher than in healthy tissues. This ability of Azithromycin to concentrate at the site of infection is useful and separates it from other drugs that are known to evenly disperse to the whole body.
It is also important that Azithromycin acts to not only take action against bacterial cells within the body, but also those lying outside. This means that Azithromycin can affect bacteria-intracellular parasites such as mycoplasma and chlamydia.
It is important to remember that Azithromycin, like any other drug, has side effects, which includes:
- Central nervous system abnormalities associated with causing dizziness, headaches, nervous excitement, fatigue, or drowsiness.
- Cardiovascular system abnormalities leading to chest pain and palpitations.
- Abnormal function of digestive organs, which is most common. This may include nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, and/or cholestasis. Children may lose their appetite.
- Genitourinary system abnormalities, which commonly results in vaginal candidiasis.